Publications

Robust economic frameworks and empirical methods, informed by evidence

Review of Housing and Business Development Capacity Assessments 2021


The Ministry for the Environment (MfE) appointed Principal Economics to review the Housing and Business Development Capacity Assessments HBAs). Our review included all councils’ HBAs, except for Rotorua and Wellington, which were not available at the time of this review. The focus of our review was on the requirements of the National Policy Statement on Urban Development 2020 (NPS-UD 2020). The outcome of our review indicates the areas of improvement for the next round of HBAs both for the councils and for the MfE and HUD (the ministries).

Reviews that have been published online can be found below:

Household Crowding Measures: A Comparison and External Test of Validity


Analysts may have multiple measures of household crowding, and so need to know which measure to emphasise. We analyse the relationships between alternative subjective and objective crowding measures and assess how well these alternative measures predict a measure of residential satisfaction. Statistically, a perceived crowding (PC) measure outperforms the people per bedroom (PPBR) measure, an objective measure of crowding. However, there may be bias in the relationship between PC and the residential satisfaction variable. Amongst objective measures, the Canadian National Occupancy Standard also outperforms PPBR. Nevertheless, all three measures are highly correlated and each helps to predict levels of residential satisfaction. Thus, any of the three measures provides a valid indicator of household crowding when assessing housing stress.

Cite this article

Torshizian, E., Grimes, A. Household Crowding Measures: A Comparison and External Test of Validity. J Happiness Stud 22, 1925–1951 (2021).
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-020-00302-z